2020 Atlantic hurricane season

From Illogicopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The 2020 Atlantic hurricane season was the mostest hyperactive and fifth really costliest Atlantic hurricane seazon evar! It's also the fifth consectutive superhyperactive season since 2016 too, which is wack dude. The 2020 season had 31 (sub)tropical cyclones. Only one system didn't get to be a named storm, cuz it was a wimp. Yeah, here's looking at you, Tropical Depression Ten! FREAKIN' COWARD! Anyways, out of the thirty non-wimps, there were thirteen hurricanes. There were six major hurricanes too. Iota was the only category 5. Therefore, Iota was the Chad of the hurricanes.
The 2020 Atlantic season was the second season ever (at least in the atlantic) to use greek names, the first being 2005. 12 of the storms this season made landfall in the USA, breaking the previous record of a lame-by-comparison nine storms, in 1916. 2020 was also the fifth-in-a-row season with atleast one superchad Cat 5 storm. 27 tropical storms set a new record for the earliest formation by storm number. There was also 10 storms that strengthened faster than Barry Bonds, tying it with 1995. It seems all this unprecedented activity was all caused by a crackhead La Niña in the summer.

The season started for real on June 1st, and ended for real on November 30th. But madlads Arthur and Bertha formed on May 16th and 17th respectively, so 2020 was the sixth year in a row to have early/pre-season storm formation. (Will it happen again in 2021? We'll see...) The first hurricane, Hurricane Hanna, made landfall in Texas. Isaias formed July 31st, making landfall twice in both The Bahamas and North Carolina in early August. Laura made landfall in Louisiana (hey look alliteration!) as a Cat 4, making it the strongest-est hurricane to make landfall there, in the context of windspeed, alongside some other hurricane. Laura caused almost $19 billion in damage, and 77 deaths. September was the most active month of the season (as it usually goes), with ten named storms. Superslow Sally totally funked up the Gulf Coast with some major flooding. The Greek alphabet was used for the second time ever (as mentioned above), and this started with Subtropical Storm Alpha, which made landfall in Portugal. Hurricane Eta formed on Halloween, and made landfall in Central America as a Cat 4 on November 3rd. Eta eventually caused the deaths of at least 211 people, and caused almost $8 billion in damage. And then, on the 10th, Tropical Storm Theta showed up and became the super-mega-record-breakin' 29th named storm of the season! But THAT'S NOT ALL! (oh boy) Hurricane Chad Iota formed in the Caribbean a mere three days later! Iota then rapidly intensifies into a Category 5 on the 16th, the latest Cat 5 ever in the Atlantic!! Iota, please collect your award from reception. This also made 2020 the only season ever to have two major hurricanes in November. Iota ended up making landfall in the same general area of Central America that Eta did, and caused catastrophic damage.

Early on in the season, American officials were concerned about how the hurricane season could worsen the effects of the coronavirus pandemic and, put simply, "make shit worse" for people living in coastal areas. Someone wrote about this, saying (paraphrased and simplified) "there's a totally obvious incompatibility between evacuation and sheltering strats, and effective approaches to Slow the Spread™".

Preseason Forecasts (AKA, "Boy Were They Wrong!™")[edit]

Predictions of tropical activity in the 2020 season
Source Date Named
storms
Hurricanes Major
hurricanes
Average (1981–2010) 12.1 6.4 2.7
Record high activity 30 15 7
Record low activity 4 2† 0†
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
TSR December 19, 2019 15 7 4
CSU April 2, 2020 16 8 4
TSR April 7, 2020 16 8 3
UA April 13, 2020 19 10 5
TWC April 15, 2020 18 9 4
NCSU April 17, 2020 18–22 8–11 3–5
PSU April 21, 2020 15–24 n/a n/a
SMN May 20, 2020 15–19 7–9 3–4
UKMO* May 20, 2020 13* 7* 3*
NOAA May 21, 2020 13–19 6–10 3–6
TSR May 28, 2020 17 8 3
CSU June 4, 2020 19 9 4
UA June 12, 2020 17 11 4
CSU July 7, 2020 20 9 4
TSR July 7, 2020 18 8 4
TWC July 16, 2020 20 8 4
CSU August 5, 2020 24 12 5
TSR August 5, 2020 24 10 4
NOAA August 6, 2020 19–25 7–11 3–6
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Actual activity
30 13 6
* June–November only
† Most recent of several such occurrences.

Seasonal summary[edit]

Pre/early season activity[edit]

Tropical cyclone formation started in May, with Arthur and Bertha. This marked the first occurrence of two preseason storms in the Atlantic since 2016, and the first occurrence of two named storms in May since 2012. Tropical Storm Cristobal formed on June 1st, at the same time that the hurricane season officialy started. Tropical Storm Dolly also formed during this month. Tropical storms Edouard, Fay, and Gonzalo, along with hurricanes Hanna and Isaias, formed in July. Hanna was the first hurricane of 2020, and struck South Texas. Isaias was the second hurricane of the season (obviously) and struck mosta the Caribbean and the East Coast of the US. Tropical Depression Ten also formed in late July off the coast of West Africa but quickly dissipated. July 2020 tied 2005 for the hyperactive-est July ever in the basin in terms of named systems.

Peak season activity (uh oh, here we go)[edit]

August saw the formation of tropical storms Josephine and Kyle, and hurricanes Laura and Marco. Marco was the third hurricane, but kinda just dropped off and dissipated before it made landfall in Louisiana. Laura was the fourth hurricane and first major hurricane of the season, and made landfall in southwest Louisiana at Cat 4 strength, with winds clocking in at 150 mph (240 km/h for you metric folks). August ended with a depression (the beginning of school) that eventually became Tropical Storm Omar on September 1st.

In September, there was the formation of nine (dang dude) depressions, which eventually became: tropical storms Rene, Vicky, Wilfred, and Beta; Subtropical Storm (STS) Alpha; and hurricanes Nana (named mere hours before Omar), Paulette, Sally, and Teddy. This bunch of storms coincided with the very peak of the season and the development of the crackhead La Niña conditions. Paulette hit up Bermuda as a Cat 1, so she was the first cyclone to hit since Gonzalo in 2014. Hurricane Sally touched down near Miami, as a depression. Then she went ape on us, ruining absolutely everything as a - suprise! - Cat 2. Teddy, the eighth hurricane and second major hurricane of the season, formed on the 12th, and Vicky formed 2 days later. And when Vicky came up, there were now FIVE tropical cyclones active at the same time in the Atlantic basin, which hasn't happened since 1995. Meanwhile, Teddy went on to ruin Atlantic Canada's good time as an extremely large extratropical cyclone on the 23rd. And then Paulette reformed for, like, a super-short bit of time, into a tropical storm. Then she just went post-tropical again. Then in a six-hour timeframe on the 18th, Wilfred, Alpha, and Beta became named systems, an event only previously recorded in 1893. Alpha came up insanely far east and got to be the first tropical cyclone to hit Portugal. Beta intensified and went tropical storm on us, so then Sept. 2020 got to be the hyperactive-est month on record, with 10 named cyclones. And there goes Beta, hitting up Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi before becoming a remnant low over Alabama, which just happened suddenly after 18 straight days. Wack while it lasted tho.

Late season activity (thank god it's over)[edit]

October 'n November were insanely active, with 7 named storms, 4 of which became major hurricanes - twice the number recorded during this period in any previous season! Then TS Gamma formed on Oct 2nd before hitting up the Yucatan Peninsula two days later. A few days later, Hurricane Delta showed up in the Caribbean south of Jamaica, becoming the ninth hurricane of the season. Delta blew up into a Cat 4 and made landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula (again) on the 7th, but as a Cat 2. And then it regained Cat 3 status in the Gulf of Mexico. And THEN it weakened again and then made landfall in Louisiana on the 9th. Meanwhile, TS Epsilon (at this point, the writer completely forgot about the Greek naming system) appeared in mid-October, and got to be the 10th hurricane on the 20th. This made the 2020 season the 5th Atlantic hurricane season in the satellite era (since 1966) to have atleast 10 hurricanes by Oct. 20th, along with 1969, 1995, 2005 (obviously) and 2017. Later on, Hurricane Zeta formed southwest of the Cayman Islands and took just about the same track as Delta did, descending upon the Yucatán Peninsula late on the 26th, then turning northeastward, speedin' up, and making landfall in southeast Louisiana as a Cat 2 on the 28th. The system then flew across the Eastern U.S. like a driver on Park Road (which is pretty damned fast), and just 2 days later, brought heavy accumulating snow to some of New England, then moved back across the Atlantic.

Hurricane Eta, the fifth major hurricane, made landfall as a Cat 4 on November 3rd, along the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua. Eta then moved back into the Caribbean, restrengthened into a TS, took a weird-ass erratic 'n' winding path o'er Cuba and through the Florida Keys, and then stalled in the southern Gulf of Mexico. (whew) Eta then moved north-northeast towards the west coast of Florida, briefly restrengthening into a minor hurricane along the way. On the 10th, STS Theta formed from a non-tropical low over the northeastern Atlantic before becoming a TS later in the day. And right after Eta went extratropical off the U.S. East Coast, Hurricane Iota formed over the central Caribbean on the 13th, finally tying 2005 for the most tropical and subtropical cyclones in one year. Then, Iota said "coucou" and went ape, and became a Cat 5 in a flash, then becoming the strongest storm of the season. This also marked the fifth consecutive season since 2016 with at least one Cat 5 hurricane. Iota then totally wrecked the same areas in Central America that Eta had devastated only two weeks earlier, and dissipated on the 18th over El Salvador.

The 2020 season showcased activity ad a breakneck pace. The third named storm, and each one from the fifth onwards formed on an earlier date in the year than the corresponding one in any other season since reliable records began in 1851. (whatever that means) The accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index for the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season reached 182.2250 units. The totals represent the sum of the squares for every (sub) tropical storm's intensity of over 33 knots (38 mph; 61 km/h), divided by 10,000. Broadly speaking, ACE is a measure of the power of a tropical or subtropical storm multiplied by the length of time it existed. It is only calculated for full advisories on specific tropical and subtropical systems reaching or exceeding wind speeds of 39 mph (63 km/h).

Systems[edit]

Note that systems are listed in order of their designation as a tropical depression, which may not align with the alphabetical sequence of named storms.

Tropical Storm Arthur[edit]

Tropical Depression (TD) One developed east of Florida around 18:00 UTC on May 16. Six hours later, an Air Force reconnaissance aircraft found that it had attained tropical storm strength. Tropical Storm Arthur weaved along the Gulf Stream and changed little in intensity as it met increasing wind shear. After passing east of North Carolina, the system reached peak winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) as deep convection partially covered the center. Shortly after, Arthur interacted with another front and became an extratropical cyclone by 12:00 UTC on May 20. The low turned southeast before dissipating near Bermuda a day later.

With the formation of TS Arthur, the 2020 season became the record sixth in-a-row season with a tropical or subtropical cyclone before the official start of the season on June 1st. Passing within 20 nautical miles of the Outer Banks, Arthur caused TS-force wind gusts and a single report of sustained TS-force winds at Alligator River Bridge. Arthur caused $112,000 in damage in Florida.

Tropical Storm Bertha[edit]

On May 27, a small, well-defined low with centralized convection formed off the coast of South Carolina and rapidly developed into a tropical storm. Based on Doppler weather radar and buoy data, the system attained peak winds of 50 mph (85 km/h) shortly before moving inland near Isle of Palms. Turning north and accelerating, the system quickly degraded and transitioned into an extratropical cyclone over Virginia.

Damage was primarily limited to localized flooding, especially around canals, and an EF1 tornado caused minor damage in southern Miami. In coastal South Carolina, there was localized flash flooding, and one person drowned due to rip currents at Myrtle Beach. Overall, Bertha caused at least $133,000 in damage.

Tropical Storm Cristobal[edit]

At 10:00 am UTC on May 31st, TS Amanda of the Eastern Pacific basin made landfall on Guatemala and dissipated inland. Its remnants crossed Central America and entered the Bay of Campeche, and at 18:00 UTC on June 1, Tropical Depression Three developed directly from those remnants.(According to the [[National Hurricane Center's protocol, a tropical cyclone that dissipates in one basin and reforms in another is given a different name.[1] By 12:00 UTC the following day, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Cristobal. Throughout the remainder of the day, Cristobal's wind field became more symmetrical and well defined and it gradually strengthened, with falling barometric pressure as the storm meandered towards the Mexican coastline. Cristobal made landfall as a strong tropical storm just west of Ciudad del Carmen at 13:35 UTC on June 3 at its peak intensity of Template:Convert. As Cristobal very slowly moved inland, it weakened to tropical depression status as the overall structure of the storm deteriorated. The storm began accelerating northwards on June 5 and by 06:00 UTC that day, despite being situated inland over the Yucatán Peninsula, Cristobal re-intensified back to tropical storm status. As Cristobal moved further north into the Gulf of Mexico, it again reached winds of Template:Convert before dry air and interaction with an upper-level trough to the east began to strip Cristobal of any central convection, with most of the convection being displaced to the east and north of the center. Late on June 7, Cristobal made landfall over southeastern Louisiana. The system weakened to a tropical depression on the next day, as it moved inland over the state. The storm survived as a tropical depression as it moved up the Mississippi River Valley, before finally becoming extratropical at 00:00 UTC on June 10 over southern Wisconsin. On June 12, Cristobal degenerated into a remnant low, before fully dissipating on June 13.[2]

On June 1, the government of Mexico issued a tropical storm warning from Campeche westward to Puerto de Veracruz. Residents at risk were evacuated. Nine thousand Mexican National Guard members were summoned to aid in preparations and repairs.[3] Significant rain fell across much of Southern Mexico and Central America. Wave heights up to Template:Cvt high closed ports for several days. In El Salvador, a mudslide caused seven people to go missing. Up to Template:Cvt of rain fell in the Yucatán Peninsula, flooding sections of a highway. Street flooding occurred as far away as Nicaragua.[3] On June 5, while Cristobal was still a tropical depression, a tropical storm watch was issued from Punta Herrero to Rio Lagartos by the government of Mexico as well as for another area from Intracoastal City, Louisiana to the Florida-Alabama border, issued by the National Weather Service. These areas were later upgraded to warnings and for the Gulf Coast, the warning was extended to the Okaloosa/Walton County line.[4] Heavy rains and damage were reported within the warning areas during Cristobal's passage and the storm caused an estimated US$665 million in damage.




Tropical Storm Dolly[edit]

Around June 17, an area of disturbed weather developed just north of the Bahamas after part of a tropical wave and an upper-level trough interacted. The disturbance moved north and organized into a low-pressure area early on June 22. Shortly thereafter, the low became a subtropical depression about Template:Convert east-southeast of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Mid-level dry air and sea surface temperatures that were only marginally favorable resulted in very little strengthening on June 22. However, after moving east-northeastward and away from an upper low, the cyclone developed more deep convection and intensified into Subtropical Storm Dolly by 06:00 UTC on June 23. About six hours later, Dolly transitioned into a tropical cyclone and peaked with sustained winds of 45 mph (75 km/h) and a minimum pressure of Template:Convert. However, convection rapidly diminished after Dolly moved north of the Gulf Stream and encountered drier air. Early on June 24, Dolly degenerated into a remnant low about Template:Convert south of Sable Island. The remnant low continued northeastward and dissipated south of Newfoundland early the next day.[5]

Tropical Storm Edouard[edit]

A weak frontal system moved off the U.S. Atlantic coast at the beginning of July, spawning an area of low pressure well to the east of the northeast Florida coast on July 3. This system quickly organized as its convection gradually increased and by 12:00 UTC on July 4, the system had organized into Tropical Depression Five. The system gradually drifted first east-northeastward than northeastward towards Bermuda on the north side of a large mid-level ridge. Westerly vertical wind shear and dry air in the northwestern portion of the depression caused it to change little in strength and organization as the storm accelerated and passed 70 miles (115 km) north of Bermuda around 08:00 UTC on July 5.[6] That changed late on July 5, when a large convective burst formed over the center, allowing it to strengthen into Tropical Storm Edouard at 00:00 UTC on July 6. Edouard further intensified as it began its extratropical transition, reaching peak intensity of 1005 mbar (29.74 inHg) and maximum sustained winds of 45 mph (75 km/h) at 18:00 UTC that same day. By then, however, strong southwesterly shear and marginal sea-surface temperatures caused the Edouard to become elongated and it became an extratropical low just six hours later as its circulation merged with a frontal system about 490 miles east-southeast of Cape Race, Newfoundland at 00:00 UTC on July 7. The low began to slowly weaken on July 8, turning eastward and continuing to move rapidly within the strong mid-latitude westerlies. It moved over southern Ireland and the southern United Kingdom on July 9 and dissipated over the latter country that day.[7]

The Bermuda Weather Service issued a gale warning for the entirety of the island chain in advance of the system on July 4.[8] Unsettled weather later ensued, and the depression caused tropical storm-force wind gusts and moderate rainfall on the island early on July 5. Impacts were relatively minor.[8][9] Edouard's extratropical remnants brought brief, but heavy, rain to the British Isles, the Netherlands, Germany, southern Denmark and north-west Poland.[10][11]

Tropical Storm Fay[edit]

At 00:00 UTC July 5, shortly after the formation of Tropical Storm Edouard, the NHC began to track an area of disorganized cloudiness and showers in relation to a nearly stationary surface trough in the northern Gulf of Mexico.[12] The disturbance moved inland in the Florida Panhandle by 12:00 UTC July 6.[13] Two days later, the system re-emerged over the coast of Georgia.[14] Once offshore, the system began to organize as deep convection blossomed over the warm waters of the Gulf Stream.[15] Three hours later, the center reformed near the edge of the primary convective mass, prompting the NHC to initiate advisories on Tropical Storm Fay at 21:00 UTC July 9, located just 40 miles east-northeast of Cape Hatteras.[16][17] Fay intensified as it moved nearly due north, reaching its peak intensity of 60 mph winds and a minimum barometric pressure of 998 mbar.[18] Fay then made landfall east-northeast of Atlantic City, New Jersey at 21:00 UTC July 10 after weakening slightly.[19] It quickly lost intensity inland, and by 06:00 UTC July 11, had weakened to a tropical depression while situated about 50 mi (80 km) north of New York City.[20] The depression transitioned into a post-tropical cyclone three hours later while located roughly 30 mi (45 km) south of Albany, New York.[21]

Immediately upon formation, tropical storm warnings were issued for the coasts of New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut, as the system moved north at 7 mph.[16] Six people were directly killed due to rip currents and storm surge associated with Fay. Overall, damage from the storm on the US Eastern Coast was at least US$350 million, based on wind and storm surge damage on residential, commercial, and industrial properties.[22]

Tropical Storm Gonzalo[edit]

A dry, thermal low-pressure area merged with a tropical wave just offshore the west coast of Africa on July 15. scatterometer data early on July 21 indicated that a small, but well-defined low-pressure area formed well east of the Lesser Antilles. After a steady increase in deep convection, the low developed into a tropical depression around 18:00 UTC about Template:Convert east of the Windward Islands. Light wind shear and sea surface temperatures of Template:Convert allowed the depression to intensify into Tropical Storm Gonzalo around 06:00 UTC on July 22. Gonzalo moved generally westward due to the Bermuda-Azores high-pressure. The storm continued to strengthen throughout the day, with an eyewall under a central dense overcast and hints of a developing eye becoming evident. Gonzalo then peaked with sustained winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) and a minimum pressure of Template:Convert at 06:00 UTC on July 23. However, very dry air from Saharan Air Layer to its north significantly disrupted the central dense overcast. Although convection quickly redeveloped, the storm then encountered high wind shear, causing the cyclone to weaken. Gonzalo weakened to a tropical depression before landfall on Trinidad just north of Manzanilla Beach. Likely due to land interaction, Gonzalo weakened further and degenerated into an open trough near Venezuela's Paria Peninsula by 00:00 UTC on July 26.[23]

Although the system moved westward across the Cabo Verde Islands, little rainfall was recorded as the disturbance had a limited amount of convection. On July 23, hurricane watches were issued for Barbados and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and a tropical storm watch was issued later that day for Grenada and Tobago. After Gonzalo failed to strengthen into a hurricane on July 24, the hurricane and tropical storm watches were replaced with tropical storm warnings. The storm brought squally weather to Trinidad and Tobago and parts of southern Grenada.[23] However, the storm's impact ended up being significantly smaller than originally anticipated.[24] Only two reports of wind damage were received: a fallen tree on a health facility in Les Coteaux and a damaged bus stop roof in Argyle.[23]

Hurricane Hanna[edit]

On July 11, a tropical wave exited the west coast of Africa. Dry air caused the system to be mostly devoid of convection by the time it reached the Lesser Antilles on July 17. Thereafter, unfavorable upper-level winds prevented the wave from developing significantly as it crossed the Bahamas and Florida on July 20 and July 21. After the wave reached the Gulf of Mexico, upper-level winds became more favorable. The system acquired a well-defined circulation, and a tropical depression formed at 00:00 UTC on July 23 about Template:Convert south-southeast of Port Eads, Louisiana. Light to moderate wind shear and warm seas but mid-level dry air caused the depression to strengthen slowly, becoming Tropical Storm Hanna about 24 hours after forming as it moved west-northwest. Later on July 24, Hanna began intensifying slightly faster as convective banding increased and an eye feature developed. That same day, the cyclone also curved westward due to a strengthening deep-layer ridge to the north. Hanna reached hurricane intensity at 12:00 UTC on July 25. The storm then curved west-southwestward and peaked with sustained winds of 90 mph (150 km/h) and a minimum pressure of Template:Convert. Hanna made landfall on Padre Island, Texas, at the same intensity at 22:00 UTC on July 25, one hour and fifteen minutes before making landfall in Kenedy County. The system rapidly weakened after moving inland, dropping to tropical depression status at 18:00 UTC on July 26 near Monterrey, Nuevo León, and then dissipating shortly thereafter.[25]

The precursor disturbance to Hanna dropped heavy rain to parts of Hispaniola, the Florida Keys, and Cuba. In Walton County, Florida, a 33-year-old man drowned in rip currents while rescuing his son. In portions of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the Florida Panhandle, the outer bands of Hanna brought heavy rainfall,[25] even threatening street flooding in New Orleans.[26] Immediately after the system was classified as a tropical depression, tropical storm watches were issued for much of the Texas shoreline. At 21:00 UTC on July 24, a hurricane warning was issued from Baffin Bay to Mesquite Bay, Texas, due to Hanna being forecast to become a hurricane before landfall.[25] As the hurricane approached landfall, local officials underscored the reality of the COVID-19 pandemic when warning residents living in flood-prone neighborhoods about the prospect of evacuation. Texas governor Greg Abbott announced the deployment of 17 COVID-19 mobile testing teams focused on shelters and 100 medical personnel provided by the Texas National Guard.[27] Hanna brought storm surge flooding, destructive winds, torrential rainfall, flash flooding and isolated tornadoes across South Texas and Northeastern Mexico. In the former, the storm destroyed several mobile homes and deroofed many poorly-built structures. About 200,000 homes in Cameron and Hidalgo counties combined suffered power outages. Floodwaters entered dozens of building in low-lying areas. Throughout the United States, Hanna killed five people and caused about $1.1 billion in damage. In Mexico, heavy precipitation fell in Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. More than 250 homes in Coahuila were inundated, while at least 45 neighborhoods in Reynosa reported flood damage. The cyclone caused four deaths in Mexico and approximately $100 million in damage.[25]

Hurricane Isaias[edit]

The National Hurricane Center first began tracking a vigorous tropical wave off the coast of Africa on July 23.[28] The wave gradually organized and became better defined, developing a broad area of low pressure.[29] The system moved just south of Dominica, and at 03:00 UTC on July 30, it organized into a tropical depression. Due to its precursor disturbance already having gale-force winds, it was immediately declared a tropical storm and given the name "Isaias".[30] The following day, Isaias passed south of Puerto Rico and made landfall on the Dominican Republic. At 03:40 UTC on July 31, Isaias strengthened into a hurricane as it pulled away from the Greater Antilles.[31] The storm fluctuated in intensity afterwards, due to strong wind shear and dry air, with its winds peaking at Template:Convert and its central pressure falling to Template:Convert. At 15:00 UTC on August 1, Isaias made landfall on North Andros, Bahamas with winds around Template:Convert, and the system weakened to a tropical storm at 21:00 UTC.[32][33] It then turned north-northwest, paralleling the east coast of Florida and Georgia while fluctuating between Template:Convert wind speeds. As the storm accelerated northeastward and approached the Carolina coastline, wind shear relaxed, allowing the storm to quickly intensify back into a hurricane at 00:00 UTC on August 4,[34][35] and at 03:10 UTC, Isaias made landfall on Ocean Isle Beach, North Carolina, with 1-minute sustained winds of Template:Convert.[36] Following landfall, Isaias accelerated and only weakened slowly, dropping below hurricane status at 07:00 UTC over North Carolina.[37] The storm passed over the Mid-Atlantic states and New England before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone near the American-Canadian border, and subsequently weakening progressing into Quebec.[38]

Numerous tropical storm watches and warnings as well as hurricane watches and hurricane warnings were issued for the Lesser Antilles, Greater Antilles, Bahamas, Cuba, and the entire East Coast of the United States. Isaias caused devastating flooding and wind damage in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Several towns were left without electricity and drinking water in Puerto Rico. Two people were killed in Puerto Rico, and a person was killed in the Dominican Republic. In the United States, Isaias triggered a large tornado outbreak that prompted the issuance of 109 tornado warnings across 12 states. A total of 39 tornadoes touched down, the strongest being an EF3 tornado that struck a mobile home park near Windsor, North Carolina on August 4.[39] Fifteen people were killed in the United States.[39][40][41][42] Damage estimates exceeded US$4.725 billion, making Isaias the costliest tropical cyclone to strike the Northeastern U.S. since Hurricane Sandy in 2012.[43]

Tropical Depression Ten[edit]

On July 28, a tropical wave emerged off the west coast of Africa. Slow-moving, the system soon developed a defined low on July 29 as it turned north along the east side of an upper-level low. Associated convection became sufficiently organized for the system to be classified as a tropical depression the following day; at this time the cyclone was located about Template:Convert east-southeast of the easternmost Cabo Verde Islands. The system reached its peak intensity with winds of 35 mph (55 km/h) and a pressure of Template:Convert around 00:00 UTC on August 1. Scatterometer data revealed conflicting data, with tropical storm-force winds noted in one pass within the deepest convection to the southwest of the storm's center where the weakest winds are typically found. A near-concurrent pass from another satellite showed lower winds and the higher winds were determined to be rain-inflated, and given the conflicting data the NHC determined the system to have not become a tropical storm. Thereafter, a combination of decreasing sea surface temperatures and dry air caused convection to dissipate. The depression turned west-northwest and degraded into a remnant low later that day. It soon dissipated on August 2 north of the Cabo Verde Islands.[44]

Tropical Storm Josephine[edit]

On August 7, the NHC began monitoring a tropical wave over the tropical Atlantic. Shower and thunderstorm activity on the wave axis increased as it moved westward at 15-20 knots and a mid-level circulation formed on August 9, although the low-level circulation remained elongated and poorly-organized. The wave's circulation then became defined and a low-pressure system with disorganized convection formed late on August 10. A burst of convection near the center followed by some subsequent organization allowed the system to be designated Tropical Depression Eleven at 06:00 UTC on August 11 about Template:Convert west-southwest of the Cabo Verde Islands. However, the depression's ability to intensify was initially hindered by dry mid-level air and moderate easterly wind shear. After over two days with little change in intensity, the shear relaxed some, allowing convection to begin to form closer to the estimated center of the depression. This allowed it to strengthen into Tropical Storm Josephine at 12:00 UTC on August 13, reaching an initial peak intensity of 45 mph (75 km/h) and a minimum pressure of Template:Convert. Josephine's intensity began to fluctuate on August 14, as wind-shear affected the system, causing convection to be displaced from the circulation. Hurricane Hunter aircraft investigated the system later that day and found that the storm's center had relocated further north in the afternoon hours and Josephine reached its maximum intensity of 45 mph (75 km/h) and a minimum pressure of Template:Convert at 18:00 UTC. Nonetheless, Josephine headed into increasingly hostile conditions as it began to pass north of the Leeward Islands. As a result, the storm later weakened, becoming a tropical depression at 06:00 UTC on August 16, just north of the Virgin Islands. The weakening cyclone's circulation became increasingly ill-defined, and Josephine eventually weakened into a trough of low pressure 12 hours later.[45]

Tropical Storm Kyle[edit]

A mesoscale convective system (MCS) moved off of the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia early on August 11. The convective activity weakened that day, but a small mid-level circulation formed from the system and it re-developed some thunderstorm activity that night while it moved slowly northeastward off the coast of South Carolina. This activity generated the development of a weak low-level circulation that moved near the coast of southern North Carolina late on August 12. The system became better organized the next day, although it lacked a well-defined center and banding features. The low then moved offshore of the Outer Banks early on August 14, and deep convection increased as most of the circulation was over the warm water temperatures in the Atlantic.[46] This caused the low to become better defined and acquire gale-forced winds and at 12:00 UTC on August 14, the system became a tropical storm, although it was not operationally named "Kyle" until 21:00 UTC that day.[47] The storm proceeded to move quickly east-northeastward along the Gulf Stream due to the flow between a broad mid-level trough over the Northeastern United States and the western Atlantic subtropical ridge. Despite moderate-to-strong wind shear, Kyle strengthened and reached its peak intensity with Template:Convert maximum sustained winds at 06:00 UTC on August 15. Its minimum pressure bottomed out at Template:Convert six hours later at 12:00 UTC. However, increasing shear and interaction with a stationary front took its toll on Kyle and it began to quickly weaken as its circulation began to become elongated.[48] Kyle became an extratropical cyclone when it embedded itself within the front at 00:00 UTC August 16. Its center dissipated and its remnants were absorbed into the front shortly thereafter.[49][50] Kyle's remnant low was later absorbed by extratropical Storm Ellen, a European windstorm which brought hurricane-force winds to the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom.[51][52]

Hurricane Laura[edit]

On August 16, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) began tracking a large tropical wave that had emerged off the West African coast, and was traversing across the Intertropical Convergence Zone toward the Windward Islands.[53] As the system moved across the central tropical Atlantic toward the Windward Islands, satellite imagery revealed that the system had developed a well-defined center of circulation with sufficient organized deep convection to be classified as a tropical depression at 03:00 UTC on August 20.[54] The next day at 13:05 UTC, NOAA Hurricane Hunter Aircraft found that the depression had strengthened and become Tropical Storm Laura.[55] It remained quite disorganized, however, and the system was unable to strengthen further, due to moderate wind shear. The storm then moved over the northern Leeward islands, and it then strengthened as it approached Puerto Rico.[56] Early on August 23, Laura made landfall near San Pedro de Macorís, Dominican Republic, with 45 mph (75 km/h) winds.[57] Laura retained large amounts of convection despite interaction with the mountainous terrain of Hispaniola,[58] and gained renewed strength later that day once back over water, moving between Haiti and eastern Cuba.[59] Early on August 25, the storm entered the Gulf of Mexico[60] and became a Category 1 hurricane at 12:15 UTC on the same day.[61] Afterward, it rapidly intensified into a major hurricane, with its sustained wind speeds increasing by Template:Convert during the 24 hours ending at 15:00 UTC on August 26, reaching 125 mph (200 km/h).[62] Later that day, at 18:00 UTC, it attained Category 4 status,[63] and then, at 02:00 UTC on August 27, Laura reached its peak intensity with 1-minute sustained winds at 150 mph (240 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 937 mbar (27.67 inHg).[64] At 06:00 UTC, Laura made landfall near Cameron, Louisiana, with sustained winds of 150 mph (240 km/h),[65] making it the strongest Louisiana-landfalling hurricane in terms of wind speed since the 1856 Last Island hurricane.[66] Laura steadily weakened after moving inland, dropping to tropical storm strength roughly 11 hours later over Northern Louisiana,[67] and then to a tropical depression over Arkansas early on August 28.[68] The deteriorating system turned northeastward, and by 09:00 UTC on August 29, degenerated into a remnant low over north central Kentucky.[69]

As Laura passed through the Northern Leeward Islands, it brought heavy rainfall to the islands of Guadeloupe and Dominica,[70] and prompted the closing of all ports in the British Virgin Islands.[71] The storm produced heavy downpours upon Puerto Rico and Hispaniola.[72] Laura pummeled southwestern Louisiana and southeastern Texas, with Lake Charles, Louisiana being particularly hard hit.[73] Altogether, there were 77 storm related deaths: four in the Dominican Republic, 31 in Haiti, and 42 in the United States.

Hurricane Marco[edit]

The NHC began to track a tropical wave located over the central tropical Atlantic at 00:00 UTC on August 16.[74] Initially hindered by its speed and unfavorable conditions in the eastern Caribbean, the wave began organizing once it reached the central Caribbean on August 19.[75] At 15:00 UTC on August 20, the NHC designated the wave as Tropical Depression Fourteen.[76] Intensification was initially slow, but the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Marco at 03:00 UTC on August 22.[77] Marco passed just offshore of Honduras and, as a result of favorable atmospheric conditions, quickly intensified to an initial peak of Template:Convert and a pressure of 992 mb, with a characteristic eye beginning to form on radar.[78] After a Hurricane Hunters flight found evidence of sustained winds above hurricane force, Marco was upgraded to a Category 1 hurricane at 16:30 UTC on August 23.[79] Even so, strong southwesterly wind shear soon displaced the storm's convection, exposing its low-level center, which caused the system to weaken.[80] It was downgraded to a tropical storm at 03:00 UTC on August 24.[81] Later that day, at 23:00 UTC, Marco made landfall near the mouth of the Mississippi River as a weak tropical storm with winds at Template:Convert and a pressure of 1006 mb.[82] Marco degenerated into a remnant low just south of Louisiana at 09:00 UTC on August 25.[83]

Marco was indirectly responsible for the death of one person in Chiapas, Mexico.[84] As the storm ultimately weakened faster than anticipated, its landfall in Louisiana was much less damaging than initially feared, only causing around $35 million in damage.[85]

Tropical Storm Omar[edit]

A vigorous mid to upper-level shortwave trough moved into the Southeastern United States on August 29. The shortwave trough then interacted with the remnants of a frontal system, resulting in the formation of a low-pressure area offshore northeast Florida on August 30. Drifting over the Gulf Stream, the low quickly organized into a tropical depression around 12:00 UTC on August 31 while situated about Template:Convert south-southeast of Wilmington, North Carolina. Dry air and vertical wind shear offset the warm sea surface temperatures as the system headed northeastward. However, following a burst in deep convection, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Omar around 12:00 UTC on September 1. The storm then peaked with sustained winds of 40 mph (65 km/h) and a minimum pressure of Template:Convert. An increase in wind shear kept Omar weak. Consequently, the storm struggled to maintain deep convection as it moved eastward and weakened to a tropical depression early on September 3. Omar decelerated due to a weak steering flow, turning northward on September 5, due to a southerly flow associated with a deep-layer trough. Although the cyclone experienced periodic bursts of convection, strong wind shear eventually caused the storm to degenerate into a remnant low about Template:Convert northeast of Bermuda late on September 5. The low moved generally northward before being absorbed by a frontal system on the following day.[86]

Hurricane Nana[edit]

On August 27, the NHC began to monitor a tropical wave that was moving westward over the Atlantic.[87] Over the next four days, system gradually organized and acquired gale-force winds and at 06:00 UTC on September 1, it developed into a tropical storm. Operationally, it was not named until 16:00 UTC, when a hurricane hunter aircraft investigating the storm found a well-defined low-level circulation (LLC), allowing the NHC to name the system Nana.[88] By 18:00 UTC that same day, the storm strengthened some more, obtaining 1-minute sustained winds of 60 mph (95 km/h). Afterward, moderate northerly shear of 15 knots halted the trend and partially exposed the center of circulation, although its pressure continued to drop. After the shear abated some late on September 2, Nana redeveloped convection over its center and quickly intensified into a hurricane at 03:00 UTC on September 3, reaching its peak intensity with 1-minute sustained winds of 75 mph (120 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 994 mbars (29.36 inHg). Three hours later, Nana made landfall between Dangriga and Placencia in Belize at peak intensity. Nana quickly weakened, falling to a tropical depression at 18:00 UTC. It degenerated into a remnant low at 00:00 UTC on September 4 before dissipating shortly thereafter. Its mid-level remnants eventually spawned Tropical Storm Julio in the eastern Pacific on September 5.[89]

Nana caused street flooding in the Bay Islands of Honduras.[90] Hundreds of acres of banana and plantation crops were destroyed in Belize, where a peak wind speed of 61 mph (98 km/h) was reported at a weather station in Carrie Bow Cay.[91] Total economic losses in Belize exceeded $20 million. Heavy amounts of precipitation also occurred in northern Guatemala.[92]

Hurricane Paulette[edit]

The NHC began to track a tropical wave located over Africa on August 30.[93] The wave became better organized and formed an area of low pressure on September 6, while midway between the west coast of Africa and the Leeward Islands, but convective activity remained disorganized.[94][95] In the early hours of September 7, the wave became more organized, and the NHC began issuing advisories for Tropical Depression Seventeen at 03:00 UTC on September 7.[96] At 15:00 UTC the same day, the NHC upgraded the system to Tropical Storm Paulette.[97] The storm moved generally west-northwestward over the central tropical Atlantic as it gradually intensified. At 15:00 UTC on September 8, Paulette reached its first peak intensity with 1-minute sustained winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) with a minimum central pressure of 995 mbar (29.39 inHg).[98] Twelve hours later, an increase in wind shear weakened the storm.[99] On September 11, despite a very harsh environment, Paulette began to re-intensify.[100] The shear later began to lessen, allowing Paulette to become more organized and begin to form an eye,[101] becoming a hurricane at 03:00 UTC on September 13.[102] Dry air entrainment gave the storm a somewhat ragged appearance, but it continued to slowly strengthen as it approached Bermuda with its eye clearing out and its convection becoming more symmetric.[103] Paulette then made a sharp turn to the north and made landfall in northeastern Bermuda at 09:00 UTC on September 14 with 90 mph (150 km/h) winds and a 973 mb (28.74 inHg) pressure.[104] The storm then strengthened into a Category 2 hurricane as it accelerated northeast away from the island on September 14, reaching its peak intensify of 105 mph (170 km/h) and a pressure of 965 mb (28.50 inHg) later that day.[105][106] As Paulette accelerated northeastward, it began to start extratropical transition on September 15,[107] which it completed the next day.[108]

After about five days of slow southward movement, the extratropical cyclone began to redevelop a warm core and its wind field shrank considerably. By September 22, it had redeveloped tropical characteristics and the NHC resumed issuing advisories shortly thereafter.[109] It moved eastward over the next day, and became post-tropical for the second time in its lifespan early on September 23[110] and subsequently dissipated.

Trees and power lines were downed throughout Bermuda, leading to an island-wide power outage.[111] In Lavallette, New Jersey, a 60-year-old man drowned while swimming after being caught in rough surf produced by Paulette.[112]

Tropical Storm Rene[edit]

A tropical wave emerged into the Atlantic Ocean on September 6. A well-defined low-pressure area already existed, though convection initially remained limited. After a burst in deep convection the wave was designated as a tropical depression at 06:00 UTC on September 7 approximately Template:Convert east of the easternmost islands of Cabo Verde. Convection consolidated and organized further, with banding developing later that day, while the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Rene about 12 hours later. Moving west-northwestward for much of its duration, Rene made landfall on Boa Vista Island around 00:00 UTC on September 8 with sustained winds of 40 mph (65 km/h). Dry air and only marginally warm seas caused convection to wane and Rene weakened to a tropical depression several hours later. After another burst in deep convection early on September 9, the cyclone re-strengthened into a tropical storm. At 12:00 UTC on September 10, Rene peaked with sustained winds of 45 mph (75 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of Template:Convert. Showers and thunderstorms decreased starting on the following day due to dry air and Rene weakened to a tropical depression on September 12. Strong westerly shear caused further weakening, with Rene degenerating into a trough about Template:Convert northeast of the Leeward Islands. The remnants turned southwestward and dissipated a few days later.[113]

A tropical storm warning was issued for the Cabo Verde Islands when advisories were first issued on the storm at 09:00 UTC on September 7.[113] Rene produced gusty winds and heavy rains across the islands, but no serious damage was reported.[114] The warning was discontinued at 21:00 UTC on September 8.[113]

Hurricane Sally[edit]

On September 10, the NHC began to monitor an area of disturbed weather over The Bahamas for possible development.[115] Over the next day, convection rapidly increased, became better organized, and formed a broad area of low-pressure on September 11.[116] At 21:00 UTC, the system had organized enough to be designated as Tropical Depression Nineteen.[117] At 06:00 UTC on September 12, the depression crossed the Florida coast just south of Miami, with winds of 35 mph (55 km/h) and a pressure of 1007 mbar (29.74 inHg).[118] Shortly after moving into the Gulf of Mexico, the system strengthened into Tropical Storm Sally at 18:00 UTC the same day.[119] Northwesterly shear caused by an upper-level low caused the system to have a sheared appearance, but it continued to strengthen as it gradually moved north-northwestward.[120] Sally began to go through a period of rapid intensification around midday on September 14. Its center reformed under a large burst of deep convection and it strengthened from a 65 mph (105 km/h) tropical storm to a 90 mph (140 km/h) Category 1 hurricane in just one and a half hours.[121][122] It continued to gain strength and became a Category 2 hurricane later that evening.[123] However, upwelling due to its slow movement as well increasing wind shear weakened Sally back down to Category 1 strength early the next day.[124] It continued to steadily weaken as it moved extremely slowly northwest then north, although its pressure continued to fall.[125] However, as Sally approached the coast, its eye quickly became better defined and it abruptly began to re-intensify.[126] By 05:00 UTC on September 15, it had become a Category 2 hurricane again.[127] At around 09:45 UTC, the system made landfall at peak intensity near Gulf Shores, Alabama with winds of 105 mph (165 km/h) and a pressure of 965 mbars (28.50 inHg).[128] The storm rapidly weakened as it moved slowly inland, weakening to a Category 1 hurricane at 13:00 UTC[129] and to a tropical storm at 18:00 UTC.[130] It further weakened to a tropical depression at 03:00 UTC on September 17,[131] before degenerating into a remnant low at 15:00 UTC.[132]

A tropical storm watch was issued for the Miami metropolitan area when the storm first formed, while numerous watches and warnings were issued as Sally approached the U.S. Gulf Coast.[133] Several coastline counties and parishes on the Gulf Coast were evacuated. In South Florida, heavy rain led to localized flash flooding,[134] while the rest of the peninsula saw continuous shower and thunderstorm activity due to asymmetric structure of Sally. The area between Mobile, Alabama and Pensacola, Florida took the brunt of the storm with widespread wind damage, storm surge and flooding, and over 2 ft (61 cm) of rainfall was recorded near Naval Air Station Pensacola.[135] several tornadoes touched down in the region as well.[133] Ultimately, eight people were killed and damage estimates were at least $6.25 billion.[85]

Hurricane Teddy[edit]

The NHC began to monitor a tropical wave over Africa early on September 7.[136] By the afternoon of September 12, the disturbance, then located several hundred miles west-southwest of the Cabo Verde Islands, had become better defined,[137] and at 21:00 UTC that night, the NHC designated it as Tropical Depression Twenty.[138] After overcoming persistent northerly shear,[139] the system became better organized and strengthened into Tropical Storm Teddy at 09:00 UTC on September 14.[140] The storm continued to intensify, with an eye beginning to form late on September 15.[141] Satellite data received shortly after 06:00 UTC the following day indicated that Teddy had quickly intensified into an 85 mph (140 km/h) hurricane.[142] The storm continued to intensify, becoming a Category 2 hurricane later that day.[143] However, some slight westerly wind shear briefly halted intensification and briefly weakened the storm to a Category 1 at 03:00 UTC on September 17.[144] When the shear decreased, Teddy rapidly re-intensified into a major hurricane at 15:00 UTC that day.[145] Teddy further strengthened into a Category 4 hurricane six hours later, reaching its peak intensity of 140 mph (220 km/h) and a pressure of 945 mb (27.91 inHg).[146] Internal fluctuation and an eyewall replacement cycle caused the storm to weaken slightly to a Category 3 hurricane at 09:00 UTC on September 18.[147] Soon after, Teddy briefly re-strengthened into a Category 4 hurricane[148] before another eyewall replacement cycle weakened it again to Category 3 intensity.[149] On the morning of September 20, the hurricane's internal structure deteriorated substantially, causing its eye to nearly dissipate,[150] and by 12:00 UTC Teddy had weakened to Category 2 intensity.[151]

While moving generally in a north-northeasterly direction across the central Atlantic, Teddy weakened to a Category 1 hurricane during the afternoon of September 21.[152] Later that day, the system began to merge with a mid-latitude trough;[153] the infusion of energy from the trough in combination with the warm waters of the Gulf Stream caused it to re-intensify to Category 2 hurricane late that night.[154] As Teddy began to undergo an extratropical transition on September 22, while moving toward Nova Scotia, its windfield expanded greatly, with hurricane-force winds extending outward up to 150 mi (240 km) from the center and tropical-storm-force winds extending outward up to 550 mi (890 km).[155] Later that same day, the hurricane weakened to Category 1 intensity,[156] before becoming a strong post-tropical cyclone at around 00:00 UTC on September 23.[157] Though its deep convection diminished as it moved north-northeastward, the cyclone's central pressure remained in the 950's.[158] The cyclone made landfall approximately 12 hours later near Ecum Secum, Nova Scotia with maximum sustained winds near 65 mph (100 km/h).[159] The storm then made landfall in Newfoundland as a weakening extratropical storm.[160]

Hurricane Teddy generated large ocean swells which spread along much of the U.S. Atlantic coast and from the northern Caribbean to Bermuda.[161] Two people drowned in the waters off La Pocita in Loíza, Puerto Rico due to rip currents generated by these swells on September 18,[162] as did a swimmer at Point Pleasant Beach, New Jersey on September 23.[163]

Tropical Storm Vicky[edit]

In the early hours of September 11, a tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa.[164] The disturbance steadily organized, and the NHC issued a special advisory to designate the system as Tropical Depression Twenty-One at 00:00 UTC on September 14. The depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Vicky six hours later based on scatterometer data. Despite extremely strong shear partially caused by Hurricane Teddy's outflow removing all but a small convective cluster to the northeast of its center, Vicky intensified further, reaching its peak intensity with 1-minute sustained winds of 50 mph (85 km/h) and a pressure of 1001 mbar (29.52 inHg) at 12:00 UTC on September 15. Eventually, 50 knots of wind shear began to take its toll on Vicky, and its wind speed began to fall. It weakened into a tropical depression at 12:00 UTC on September 17, and degenerating into a remnant low six hours later. The low continued westward producing weak disorganized convection before opening up into a trough late on September 19 and dissipating early the next day.[165]

The tropical wave that spawned Tropical Storm Vicky produced flooding in the Cabo Verde Islands. The floods killed one person in Praia on September 12.[166][167]

Subtropical Storm Alpha[edit]

A large, extratropical low-pressure area developed over the northeast Atlantic Ocean on September 14, following the interaction between a surface front and an upper-level low. The low peaked with sustained winds of 70 mph (110 km/h) on September 15. Although the low weakened as it headed south-southeastward, the wind field contracted and convection began forming closer to the circulation due to marginally warm sea surface temperatures and sufficient instability. By 06:00 UTC on September 17, the system developed into Subtropical Storm Alpha roughly Template:Convert east of the Azores. Alpha strengthened slightly further, peaking with sustained winds of 50 mph (85 km/h) and a minimum pressure of Template:Convert around 00:00 UTC on September 18. At 18:40 UTC, the cyclone made landfall just south of Figueira da Foz, Portugal. Early on September 19, Alpha weakened to a tropical depression and then dissipated over the northeast part of Portugal.[168]

In preparation for Alpha on September 18, orange warnings were raised for high wind and heavy rain in Coimbra and Leiria districts of Portugal. Alpha and its associated low produced a wind gust up to Template:Convert at Monte Real. High winds downed many trees and caused numerous power outages in coastal Portugal. The storm also spawned at least two tornadoes, both rated EF1 on the Enhanced Fujita scale. In Spain, the front associated with Alpha caused a train to derail in Madrid,[168] while thunderstorms on Ons Island caused a forest fire.[169] A woman died in Calzadilla after a roof collapsed.[168] Overall, Alpha caused at least $1 million in damage.[85]

Tropical Storm Wilfred[edit]

A tropical wave and its associated broad low-pressure area emerged into the Atlantic from the west coast of Africa on September 13. A well-defined center of circulation formed on September 17. Stronger and more organized and convection appeared later that day, while a scatterometer pass observed tropical storm-force winds. As a result, Tropical Storm Wilfred developed around 18:00 UTC on September 17 while situated about Template:Convert southwest of the southernmost islands of Cabo Verde. The storm then attained its peak intensity with sustained winds of 40 mph (65 km/h) and a minimum pressure of Template:Convert. Very dry air from the Saharan Air Layer prevented further intensification, while westerly to northwesterly wind shear increased to about Template:Convert by September 19. Deep convection began to diminish on the following day, causing Wilfred to weaken to a tropical depression around 12:00 UTC. Early on September 21, Wilfred degenerated into an trough approximately Template:Convert east of the northernmost Leeward Islands.[170]

Tropical Storm Beta[edit]

On September 10, the NHC began to monitor a trough that had formed over the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.[171] Development of the system was not expected at the time due to strong upper-level winds produced by Hurricane Sally.[172] The disturbance nonetheless persisted, moving southwestward into the southwestern Gulf of Mexico where it began to organize as Sally moved away into the Southeastern United States early on September 16.[173] The next day, hurricane hunters found a closed circulation, and as thunderstorms persisted near the center, the NHC initiated advisories on Tropical Depression Twenty-Two at 23:00 UTC on September 17.[174] At 21:00 UTC on September 18, the system strengthened into Tropical Storm Beta.[175] Although affected by wind shear and dry air, the storm continued to intensify, reaching a peak intensity of 60 mph (95 km/h) and a pressure of 994 mbar|mb (29.36 inHg) at 15:00 UTC on September 19, with a brief mid-level eye visible on radar imagery.[176][177] However, it became nearly stationary after turning westward over the Gulf of Mexico, causing upwelling and weakening the storm.[178][179] Beta continued to weaken, and made landfall on the Matagorda Peninsula in Texas at 04:00 UTC on September 22, with winds of 45 mph (75 km/h).[180] Afterwards, Beta fell to tropical depression status at 15:00 UTC.[181] It then became nearly stationary again before turning east, with the NHC issuing their final advisory and giving future advisory responsibilities to the Weather Prediction Center (WPC).[182][183] It degenerated into a remnant low at 03:00 UTC on September 23.[184]

Beta caused extensive flooding throughout much of the Greater Houston metropolitan area. Houston officials reported that over 100,000 gallons of domestic wastewater spilled at five locations in the city as a result; officials also reported that one man drowned in Brays Bayou.[185]

Tropical Storm Gamma[edit]

The NHC initiated advisories on Tropical Depression Twenty-Five at 15:00 UTC on October 2.[186] Eight hours later, the depression developed into Tropical Storm Gamma, while located off the eastern coast of Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula.[187] Gamma began to quickly intensify after formation, almost reaching hurricane strength at 15:00 UTC on October 3.[188] Shortly thereafter, at around 16:45 UTC, Gamma made landfall near Tulum, Quintana Roo, at peak strength with winds of 70 mph (110 km/h) and a pressure of 980 mb.[189] Gamma weakened some as it passed over the northern Yucatán,[190] then emerged over the southern Gulf of Mexico early on October 4, with maximum sustained winds of 50 mph (95 km/h).[191] Gamma re-intensified slightly after moving back over water, but stalled during the afternoon,[192] before increased wind shear left the center exposed,[193] causing it to weaken to a tropical depression by 21:00 UTC on October 5.[194] The storm became post tropical six hours later just 85 miles north of the Yucatán Peninsula as it failed to redevelop any central convection.[195]

Numerous tropical cyclone watches and warnings were issued for parts of the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico following the formation of Gamma and thousands of people were evacuated. Gamma produced strong winds, heavy rainfall, flash flooding, landslides, and mudslides in the region. At least seven fatalities have been confirmed.[196]

Hurricane Delta[edit]

On October 1, the NHC began to monitor a tropical wave located a few hundred miles east of the Lesser Antilles for potential development.[197] Later, at 21:00 UTC on October 4, the system was classified as Potential Tropical Cyclone Twenty-Six.[198] By 03:00 UTC on October 5, it had become sufficiently organized to be labeled a tropical depression.[199] The system continued to gain strength and at 12:00 UTC it was designated Tropical Storm Delta, while located roughly Template:Convert south of Jamaica.[200][201] Delta soon began to rapidly intensify, attaining hurricane strength 12 hours later.[202] By 15:20 UTC on October 6, a Hurricane Hunters reconnaissance aircraft found that the system had continued to rapidly intensify into a Category 4 major hurricane with maximum sustained winds near Template:Convert.[203] Delta's breakneck rate of intensification was due to a combination of extremely warm ocean water temperatures, low wind shear and sufficiently moist air aloft.[204] After attaining maximum sustained winds of 145 mph (230 km/h) and a pressure of 956 mb (28.23 inHg),[205] Delta weakened early on October 7 due to a slight increase in mid-level wind shear, which inhibited upper-level outflow from the storm and disrupted its small core.[203][206] Later that day, around 10:30 UTC, it made landfall near Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo as a Category 2 hurricane with wind speeds of 110 mph (175 km/h).[207] Delta spent several hours over land before emerging off the coast of the Yucatán Peninsula and into the Gulf of Mexico north of Dzilam de Bravo, Yucatán,[208] as a Category 1 hurricane around 21:00 UTC.[209] It regained Category 2 status early on October 8,[210] and strengthened back into a major hurricane later that day.[211] At 09:00 UTC on October 9, Delta reached its lowest central pressure of 953 mb (28.14 inHg) and secondary peak sustained winds of 120 mph (195 km/h).[212] Delta weakened on October 9 to category 2 strength as it moved toward the southwestern Louisiana coast,[213] and made landfall near Creole, Louisiana with winds of 100 mph (155 km/h) at 23:00 UTC.[214] By 06:00 UTC on October 10, Delta had weakened to a tropical storm,[215] and by 15:00 UTC to a tropical depression.[216] It became post-tropical six hours later while located about 80 mi (130 km) west-southwest of Tupelo, Mississippi.[217]

As Delta was nearing landfall in Quintana Roo, Mexican president Andrés Manuel López Obrador announced on October 6 the activation of the DN-III emergency plan and the mobilization of 5,000 soldiers of the Mexican Armed Forces to help with the evacuation of sheltering people in the region.[218] There were no immediate reports of deaths or injuries, but there were numerous reports of fallen trees and damage to the region's electrical grids.[208] As Delta moved into the northern Gulf of Mexico, widespread watches and warnings were issued along the U.S. Gulf Coast.[219] States of emergency were declared in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama and numerous coastal, low-lying, and flood prone areas were evacuated.[220][221][222] The hurricane and its remnants produced heavy rain, strong winds, storm surge, and tornadoes across much of the Southeastern United States.[223] Altogether, there were six storm-related fatalities, two each in the Yucatán, Louisiana and Florida.[224][225][226][227]

Hurricane Epsilon[edit]

The NHC started monitoring a non-tropical low late on October 15. It slowly organized and gained convection as it meandered southeast of Bermuda. Early on October 19, the NHC issued a special advisory on the system as it became more well-defined, dubbing it Tropical Depression Twenty-Seven as it became nearly stationary.[228] Three hours later, the system strengthened into Tropical Storm Epsilon,[229] and then gradually intensified the following day as it completed a small counter-clockwise loop.[230] An eye soon became apparent on infrared satellite images, and Epsilon strengthened into a hurricane at 03:00 UTC on October 21.[231] At 21:00 UTC that day, a NOAA hurricane hunter aircraft reported that the storm had rapidly strengthened to a Category 3 hurricane, becoming the fourth major hurricane of the season. Epsilon reached its peak intensity of 115 mph (185 km/h) and pressure of 951 mbar (28.08 inHg) three hours later.[232][233] Its unusual rapid intensification over cool sea surface temperatures and moderate wind shear was unprecedented by forecasters and was also the farthest east any tropical cyclone had rapidly intensified this late in an Atlantic hurricane season.[234][235] By 09:00 UTC on October 22 the storm started to weaken with the eye becoming increasingly cloud-filled, and Epsilon was downgraded to a Category 2 hurricane.[236] The eye began to re-emerge later in the day though reconnaissance aircraft found the storm had already weakened to a Category 1 hurricane at 15:00 UTC.[237] That night, Epsilon made its closest advance toward Bermuda, passing about Template:Convert to its east.[238] Epsilon continued to weaken very slowly as it moved northward toward the north extent of the Gulf Stream and encountered colder sea surface temperatures. By the morning of October 25, its wind field was beginning to grow again as the hurricane began its extratropical transition; although it continued to produce inner-core convection.[239] Epsilon dropped below hurricane intensity at 21:00 UTC that evening,[240] and completed its post-tropical transition by 03:00 UTC on October 26.[241] The remnants of Epsilon were later absorbed into a deep extratropical low southwest of Iceland.[242] The trailing weather fronts associated with this low produced waves up to Template:Convert on the coast of Ireland on October 28.[243] In advance, Met Éireann issued yellow warnings for wind for the counties of Cork, Wexford, and Waterford,[244] and the Met Office issued the same for parts of Wales and North West England.[242]

The hurricane's large wind field prompted the issuance of a tropical storm watch for Bermuda at 15:00 UTC on October 20,[245] which was later upgraded to a warning 24 hours later.[246] Although the Bermuda Weather Service anticipated that hurricane-force winds would not impact the island,[247] the Government of Bermuda warned residents to prepare for power outages and to check their emergency supplies.[248] Additionally, Dangerous Surf Advisory signs were posted at south shore beaches.[249] Rainfall on the island as the storm passed by amounted to less than an inch; winds at Bermuda's airport gusted near tropical storm-force, with a peak wind gust of Template:Convert.[238] The hurricane also generated large sea swells from Bermuda to the Bahamas, the Greater Antilles and the Leeward Islands.[249] As Epsilon began moving away from Bermuda on October 23, the tropical storm warning was cancelled.[250]

Hurricane Zeta[edit]

On 21:00 UTC on October 24, a system had organized enough to be designated as Tropical Depression Twenty-Eight.[251] At 06:00 UTC the following morning, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Zeta,[252] Despite experiencing some north-northwestwardly shear,[253] Zeta steadily intensified, and reached hurricane strength by 19:20 UTC on October 26.[254] It made landfall north of Tulum, Quintana Roo at 04:00 UTC the next day with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h) and a pressure of 977 mbars (28.85 inHg).[255] The hurricane weakened to a tropical storm while inland at 09:00 UTC.[256] Dry air wrapped around the northern half of Zeta's circulation as it moved off shore into the Gulf of Mexico, leaving the center partially exposed,[257] though it becoming better organized late on October 27, with a ragged eye feature and deep convection and visible.[258] At 06:00 UTC, Zeta became a hurricane again as it began another rapid intensification phase.[259] Zeta continued to strengthen until it reached its peak intensity of 110 mph (175 km/h) and a minimum pressure of Template:Convert as it made landfall in Cocodrie, Louisiana at 21:00 UTC.[260] Zeta steadily weakened after landfall, falling to tropical storm status over central Alabama at 06:00 UTC on October 29,[261] before transitioning into a post-tropical cyclone over central Virginia 12 hours later.[262] The remnants of Zeta then moved quickly out over the Atlantic.[263]

Heavy rain in Jamaica caused a landslide that killed two people.[264] Strong winds and rain caused flooding and damaged infrastructure in Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula.[265] There were six storm related deaths in the United States: Alabama, Louisiana and Mississippi each had one death; three people were killed in Georgia.[266] Zeta flooded city streets and knocked out power to more than 2.6 million homes and businesses across the Southeastern United States; it also disrupted 2020 election early voting in several states.[267] As the remnants of Zeta moved off shore from the continental U.S., it left behind accumulating snow across parts of New England.[268]



Hurricane Eta[edit]

TD Twenty-Nine formed at 21:00 UTC on October 31, and then strengthened into TS Eta at 3 am UTC on November 1.[269] Eta quickly strengthened, reaching hurricane strength by 09:00 UTC on November 2.[270] Eta's rapid intensification continued through that day, and by 21:00 UTC it had grown into a Category 4 hurricane.[271] Eta reached its peak intensity of 150 mph (240 km/h) and a pressure of 923 mbar (27.26 inHg) at 06:00 UTC on November 3.[272] Later that day, at 21:00 UTC, it made landfall south of Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, with winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) and a pressure of 940 mbar (27.73 inHg).[273] Eta rapidly weakened over land, moving westward, diminishing to a tropical storm by 09:00 UTC on November 4,[274] and to a tropical depression the following day. By November 7, the depression had turned northeastward back over the Caribbean,[275] where it regained tropical storm strength.[276] Eta made its next landfall in Cuba's Sancti Spíritus Province at 09:00 UTC on November 8.[277] Then, after crossing Cuba and the Straits of Florida, Eta made its third landfall, striking Lower Matecumbe Key in the Florida Keys at 04:00 UTC on November 9, with estimated maximum winds of near 65 mph (100 km/h).[278] Next, after moving into the Gulf of Mexico, Eta briefly re-strengthened into a hurricane southwest of Florida on the morning of November 11,[279] before weakening soon after to tropical storm strength later in the day due to dry air entrainment.[280] It then turned northeastward and made its final landfall near Cedar Key, Florida at 09:00 UTC on November 12, with winds of 50 mph (85 km/h).[281] The storm weakened over land as it accelerated north-northeastward, emerging over the Atlantic Ocean near the Florida–Georgia state line later that day.[282] Eta transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on November 13 while moving northeastward off the coast of the Carolinas.[283]

Hurricane and tropical storm watches and warnings were issued along the Caribbean coast of Honduras and of Northeastern Nicaragua as Eta approached.[284] Eta knocked down power lines and trees while damaging roofs and causing flooding in and around Puerto Cabezas.[285] Overall, more than 210 fatalities across Central America were attributed to the storm,[286] including 74 in Honduras, 53 in Guatemala, 27 in Mexico, 19 in Panama, two each in Nicaragua and Costa Rica, and one in El Salvador.[287][288][289][290][291][292] Relief efforts were severely hampered when, just two weeks later, Hurricane Iota made landfall approximately 15 miles (25 km) south of where Eta moved ashore.[293] Once the system began to reorganize in the Caribbean, tropical storm watches were issued on November 5, in the Cayman Islands. More watches were issued in parts of Cuba, the northwestern Bahamas, and South Florida.

Eta bought major rainfall and gusty winds to the Cayman Islands and Cuba, the latter of which was already dealing with overflowing rivers that prompted evacuations. Heavy rainfall and tropical-storm force winds were recorded across much of Florida as a result of Eta's two landfalls there, causing widespread flooding; there was one fatality in Florida during the storm.






Tropical Storm Theta[edit]

On November 6, the NHC began monitoring a non-tropical area of disturbed weather in the central Atlantic for possible gradual subtropical development. A non-tropical low then formed several hundred miles southwest of the Azores on the 8th. The system became more organized as it began to detach from a frontal boundary during the next day. At 3 am UTC on the 10th, it developed into Subtropical Storm Theta. Satellite images received shortly before 2 pm UTC that afternoon revealed that the storm had sustained winds of 70 mph (110 km/h) and a central pressure of 989 mb (29.21 inHg); this would be its peak intensity. Seven hours later, Theta completed a transition to a TS. By the next morning, the effects of strong southwesterly shear had weakened Theta somewhat, though it soon began to regain some strength, and by 03:00 UTC on November 12, attained maximum sustained winds of 65 mph (100 km/h). Even though sea surface temperatures were pretty cold and there was moderate wind shear, the air mass was unstable enough to let Theta maintain its strength. Convection continued to wax and wane around the storm's center as it fluctuated in intensity into the next day before it weakened again on the 14th, when most of the deep convection associated with it dissipated. By 9 am UTC the next day, Theta had weakened to a TD, and it degenerated to a remnant low six hours later.

Hurricane Iota[edit]

TD Thirty-One developed in the central Caribbean around midday on November 13th. Six hours later, the system strengthened into TS Iota. Iota began to rapidly intensify on the 14th, as convection started to wrap around its center, and by 6 am UTC the next day, it reached hurricane strength. At 6 am UTC on the 16th, hurricane hunters aircraft reported that Iota had already become a Cat 3 hurricane. Later that day, at 15:00 UTC, Iota reached Cat 5 intensity, and also attained its peak intensity with winds of 160 mph (260 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 917 mb (27.08 inHg). As Iota was nearing its peak intensity, it passed very close to the Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina, with its eye missing Providencia Island (in Colombia) by a mere 11 miles (18 km). Iota "weakened" to a high-end Cat 4 at 3 am UTC on the 17th as it approached the coast of Nicaragua. At 03:40 UTC, the hurricane made landfall near the town of Haulover, Nicaragua (in Pearl Lagoon municipality), with sustained winds of 155 mph (250 km/h) and a pressure of 920 mb (27.17 inHg); its landfall location was approximately 15 miles (25 km) south of where Hurricane Eta made landfall 13 days earlier. Iota then steadily weakened as it pushed westward over Central America, finally falling below hurricane status at 18:00 UTC. By 9 am UTC on November 18, Iota weakened to a tropical depression over El Salvador, before dissipating later on that day.

The government of Colombia issued a hurricane warning for Providencia and a hurricane watch for the island of San Andrés on the 14th; and a few hours later, hurricane warnings were issued for portions of the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua and of Honduras. Iota damaged much of the infrastructure of Providencia, and caused a ton o' damaging flooding in Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala. There were at least 61 storm-related fatalities in the region, which was still recovering from the impacts of Hurricane Eta.

Storm names[edit]

Retirement[edit]

End of Greek alphabet usage[edit]

Season effects[edit]

LOUISIANA SUFFERS!!!!![edit]

  1. Template:Cite report
  2. Berg, Robbie (January 13, 2020). Tropical Cyclone Report: Tropical Storm Cristobal.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Courtney Travis (June 3, 2020). Cristobal makes landfall in Mexico, could dump up to 30 inches of rain before heading for US. AccuWeather.
  4. Tropical Storm Cristobal Advisory Archive. National Hurricane Center.
  5. Template:Cite report
  6. Tropical Depression Five Tracking Away From Land in the Atlantic (in en-US).
  7. Template:Cite report
  8. 8.0 8.1 Pérez, Paola. Tropical Depression 5 accelerates away from Bermuda; hurricane center watches low pressure area along northern Gulf Coast.
  9. Tropical Depression 5 no longer a threat. Royal Gazette.
  10. Orkaanseizoen begint op gang te komen.
  11. Online, FOCUS. Gefahr von Superzellen: 80 Liter Dauerregen und gefährliche Gewitter am Nachmittag - Video.
  12. NHC Graphical Outlook Archive.
  13. NHC Graphical Outlook Archive.
  14. NHC Graphical Outlook Archive.
  15. NHC Graphical Outlook Archive.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Tropical Storm FAY.
  17. Tropical Storm FAY.
  18. Tropical Storm FAY.
  19. Tropical Storm Fay makes landfall in New Jersey. (July 10, 2020).
  20. Richard Pasch (July 11, 2020). Tropical Depression Fay Intermediate Advisory Number 7A. National Hurricane Center.
  21. Richard Pasch (July 11, 2020). Post-Tropical Cyclone Fay Advisory Number 8. National Hurricane Center.
  22. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named AONAugust
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 Template:Cite report
  24. Template:Cite news
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 Template:Cite report
  26. Template:Cite news
  27. Template:Cite news
  28. Jack Beven (July 23, 2020). Five-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook. National Hurricane Center.
  29. Robbie Berg (July 26, 2020). Two-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook. National Hurricane Center.
  30. Richard Pasch (July 30, 2020). Tropical Storm Isaias Discussion Number 7. National Hurricane Center.
  31. Eric S. Blake (July 31, 2020). Hurricane Isaias Special Discussion Number 12. National Hurricane Center.
  32. Stacy R. Stewart. Hurricane Isaias Advisory Number 18...Corrected.
  33. Stacy R. Stewart. Tropical Storm Isaias Advisory Number 19.
  34. Jack Beven (August 4, 2020). Hurricane Isaias Intermediate Adivsory Number 27A...Corrected. National Hurricane Center.
  35. Hurricane Isaias Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center: (August 4, 2020).
  36. Hurricane Isaias Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center: (August 4, 2020).
  37. Tropical Storm Isaias Discussion Number 29. National Hurricane Center: (August 4, 2020).
  38. Hurricane Isaias Advisory Archive.
  39. 39.0 39.1 At least 2 people dead, 2 children missing after tornado touches down in Bertie County. (August 4, 2020).
  40. David Chang (August 4, 2020). Girl and Teen Missing, 2 Women Dead After Isaias Rips Through Region. NBC Philadelphia.
  41. Girl With Autism, Missing During Storms, Found Dead. NBC Philadelphia: (August 5, 2020).
  42. Allie Miller (August 4, 2020). Man's body found in surf off Cape May beach. Philly Voice.
  43. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named NOAAbillion
  44. Template:Cite report
  45. Template:Cite report
  46. Buckley, Tim (August 14, 2020). Tropical Storm Kyle forms; sets record for earliest K-storm. WFMY.
  47. David Zelinsky (August 14, 2020). Tropical Storm Kyle Advisory Number 1. National Hurricane Center.
  48. David Zelinsky (August 15, 2020). Tropical Storm Kyle Discussion Number 4. National Hurricane Center.
  49. Blake, Eric (February 11, 2020). Tropical Cyclone Report: Tropical Storm Kyle.
  50. Gutro, Rob (August 17, 2020). NASA Satellite Catches the End of Post-tropical Storm Kyle. NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.
  51. Best, Barra (August 19, 2020). Storm Ellen: Warnings issued ahead of strong wind and rain. BBC News.
  52. Korosec, Marko (August 20, 2020). Storm Ellen hit Ireland with winds of 'Category 1' hurricane strength – 130.000 homes without power. Severe Weather Europe.
  53. Robbie Berg (August 16, 2020). Five-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook. National Hurricane Center.
  54. John Cangialosi (August 19, 2020). Tropical Depression Thirteen Discussion Number 1. National Hurricane Center.
  55. Tropical Storm Laura Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center: (August 21, 2020).
  56. Gutro, Rob. Aug. 22, 2020 – NASA-NOAA Satellite Finds a Disorganized Tropical Storm Laura Approach Puerto Rico. Goddard Space Flight Center.
  57. Tormenta Tropical Laura provoca fuertes lluvias en todo el territorio nacional (in es). Listin Diario: (August 23, 2020).
  58. Stacy Stewart (August 23, 2020). Tropical Storm Laura Discussion Number 14. National Hurricane Center.
  59. Daniel Brown (August 23, 2020). Tropical Storm Laura Discussion Number 16. National Hurricane Center.
  60. Eric Blake (August 25, 2020). Tropical Storm Laura Intermediate Advisory Number 21A. National Hurricane Center Miami Florida.
  61. Jack Beven (August 25, 2020). Hurricane Laura Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center.
  62. Masters, Jeff (August 26, 2020). Hurricane Laura intensifies; 'catastrophic' wind and storm surge expected. Yale Center for Environmental Communication, Yale School of the Environment.
  63. Daniel Brown (August 26, 2020). Hurricane Laura Intermediate Advisory Number 27A. National Hurricane Center.
  64. Hurricane Laura Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center: (August 27, 2020).
  65. John Cangialosi (August 27, 2020). Hurricane Laura Intermediate Advisory Number 29A. National Hurricane Center.
  66. Template:Cite tweet
  67. Tropical Storm Laura Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center: (August 27, 2020).
  68. Richard Pasch (August 28, 2020). Tropical Depression Laura Discussion Number 33. National Hurricane Center.
  69. David Roth (August 29, 2020). Post-tropical cyclone Laura Advisory Number 38. Weather Prediction Center.
  70. Masters, Jeff (August 21, 2020). Tropical Storm Laura and Tropical Depression 14 predicted to converge in Gulf of Mexico. Yale Center for Environmental Communication, Yale School of the Environment.
  71. Territory's ports to close from today due to Tropical Storm – British Virgin Islands. (August 21, 2020).
  72. Coto, Dánica (August 23, 2020). Tropical Storm Laura Brings Heavy Downpours to Hispaniola, Puerto Rico. WTVJ.
  73. Hurricane Laura blasts a destructive, life-threatening path through Louisiana and Texas. CNBC: (August 27, 2020).
  74. Stacy Stewart (August 16, 2020). Five-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook. National Hurricane Center.
  75. Andrew Latto (August 19, 2020). Five-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook. National Hurricane Center.
  76. Robbie Berg (August 20, 2020). Tropical Depression Fourteen Public Advisory Number 1. National Hurricane Center.
  77. David Zelinsky (August 21, 2020). Tropical Storm Marco Advisory Number 7. National Hurricane Center Miami Florida.
  78. Robbie Berg (August 22, 2020). Tropical Storm Marco Discussion Number 10. National Hurricane Center.
  79. Andrew Latto (August 23, 2020). Hurricane Marco Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center.
  80. David Zelinsky (August 23, 2020). Hurricane Marco Discussion Number 15. National Hurricane Center.
  81. David Zelinsky (August 23, 2020). Tropical Storm Marco Advisory Number 15...Corrected. National Hurricane Center.
  82. David Zelinsky (August 24, 2020). Tropical Storm Marco Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center.
  83. Stacy Stewart (August 25, 2020). Post-Tropical Cyclone Marco Public Advisory Number 21. National Hurricane Center.
  84. Fredy Martín Pérez (August 23, 2020). Muere niña en Chiapas por afectaciones de la tormenta tropical "Marco". El Universal.
  85. 85.0 85.1 85.2 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named AonSeptember
  86. Template:Cite report
  87. Andrew Latto (August 27, 2020). Five-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook. National Hurricane Center.
  88. Template:Cite report
  89. Template:Cite report
  90. Hurricane Nana makes landfall in Belize, brings floods to Honduras; Omar to dissipate. (September 3, 2020).
  91. Farms in southern Belize lose hundreds of acres to Hurricane Nana. breakingbelizenews.com: (September 3, 2020).
  92. Nana hits Belize, then dissipates over Guatemala. (September 3, 2020).
  93. Stacy Stewart (August 30, 2020). Five-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook. National Hurricane Center.
  94. John Cangialosi (September 6, 2020). Two-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook. National Hurricane Center.
  95. John Cangialosi (September 6, 2020). Two-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook. National Hurricane Center.
  96. Stacy Stewart (September 7, 2020). Tropical Depression Seventeen Advisory Number 1. National Hurricane Center.
  97. David Zelinsky (September 7, 2020). Tropical Storm Paulette Discussion Number 3. National Hurricane Center.
  98. David Zelinsky (September 8, 2020). Tropical Storm Paulette Advisory Number 7. National Hurricane Center.
  99. Eric Blake (September 8, 2020). Tropical Storm Paulette Discussion Number 9. National Hurricane Center.
  100. Andrew Latto (September 11, 2020). Tropical Storm Paulette Forecast Advisory Number 21. National Hurricane Center.
  101. Robbie Berg (September 12, 2020). Tropical Storm Paulette Discussion Number 24. National Hurricane Center.
  102. David Zelinsky (September 13, 2020). Hurricane Paulette Advisory Number 25. National Hurricane Center.
  103. Andrew Latto (September 13, 2020). Hurricane Paulette Discussion Number 28. National Hurricane Center.
  104. Stacy Stewart (September 14, 2020). Hurricane Paulette Advisory Number 30. National Hurricane Center.
  105. Dave Roberts (September 14, 2020). Hurricane Paulette Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center.
  106. Dave Roberts (September 14, 2020). Hurricane Paulette Intermediate Advisory Number 31A. National Hurricane Center.
  107. Dave Roberts (September 15, 2020). Hurricane Paulette Advisory Number 36. National Hurricane Center.
  108. Dave Roberts (September 16, 2020). Hurricane Paulette Advisory Number 39. National Hurricane Center.
  109. Dan Brown (September 21, 2020). Tropical Storm Paulette Forecast/Advisory Number 40. National Hurricane Center.
  110. Brian Dunbar (September 23, 2020). NASA's Terra Satellite Confirms Paulette's Second Post-Tropical Transition. Hurricane And Typhoon Updates. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  111. Knocked down tress and power lines: Damage reported as Hurricane 'Paulette' makes rare landfall in Bermuda. (September 15, 2020).
  112. Man Drowns at Jersey Shore in Seas Churned by Off-Shore Hurricane. (September 15, 2020).
  113. 113.0 113.1 113.2 Template:Cite report
  114. Template:Cite news
  115. Eric Blake (September 9, 2020). Two-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook. National Hurricane Center.
  116. Robbie Berg (September 11, 2020). Two-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook. National Hurricane Center.
  117. Eric Blake (September 11, 2020). Tropical Depression Nineteen Public Advisory Number 1. National Hurricane Center.
  118. Jack Beven (September 12, 2020). Tropical Depression Nineteen Intermediate Advisory Number 2A. National Hurricane Center.
  119. Richard Pasch (September 12, 2020). Tropical Storm Sally Intermediate Advisory Number 4A. National Hurricane Center.
  120. Dan Brown (September 13, 2020). Tropical Storm Sally Discussion Number 8. National Hurricane Center.
  121. Dan Brown (September 14, 2020). Tropical Storm Sally Discussion Number 12. National Hurricane Center.
  122. Dan Brown (September 14, 2020). Hurricane Sally Discussion Number 13. National Hurricane Center.
  123. Dan Brown (September 14, 2020). Hurricane Sally Discussion Number 14. National Hurricane Center.
  124. Stacy Stewart (September 15, 2020). Hurricane Sally Intermediate Advisory Number 15A. National Hurricane Center.
  125. Dan Brown (September 15, 2020). Hurricane Sally Discussion Number 17. National Hurricane Center.
  126. Robbie Berg (September 16, 2020). Hurricane Sally Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center.
  127. Stacy Stewart (September 16, 2020). Hurricane Sally Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center.
  128. Stacy Stewart (September 16, 2020). Hurricane Sally Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center.
  129. Dan Brown (September 16, 2020). Hurricane Sally Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center.
  130. Dan Brown (September 16, 2020). Tropical Storm Sally Intermediate Advisory Number 22A. National Hurricane Center.
  131. Richard Pasch (September 17, 2020). Tropical Depression Sally Public Advisory Number 24. National Hurricane Center.
  132. Greg Carbin (September 17, 2020). Post-Tropical Cyclone Sally Public Advisory Number 26. National Hurricane Center.
  133. 133.0 133.1 Hurricane Sally Crawling Toward Gulf Coast With Potentially Historic and Life-Threatening Flooding. The Weather Channel.
  134. Template:Cite news
  135. Hurricane Sally blasts ashore in Alabama with punishing rain. Yahoo! News: (September 16, 2020).
  136. Stacy Stewart (September 7, 2020). Five-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook. National Hurricane Center.
  137. Andrew Latto (September 12, 2020). Five-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook. National Hurricane Center.
  138. Andrew Latto (September 12, 2020). Tropical Depression Twenty Advisory Number 1. National Hurricane Center.
  139. Robbie Berg (September 13, 2020). Tropical Depression Twenty Discussion Number 5. National Hurricane Center.
  140. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Tropical Storm TEDDY
  141. David Zelinsky (September 15, 2020). Tropical Storm Teddy Discussion Number 13. National Hurricane Center.
  142. Eric Blake (September 16, 2020). Hurricane Teddy Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center.
  143. Eric Blake (September 16, 2020). Hurricane Teddy Advisory Number 16. National Hurricane Center.
  144. Robbie Berg (September 16, 2020). Hurricane Teddy Discussion Number 19. National Hurricane Center.
  145. Andrew Latto (September 17, 2020). Hurricane Teddy Advisory Number 21. National Hurricane Center.
  146. Andrew Latto (September 17, 2020). Hurricane Teddy Advisory Number 22. National Hurricane Center.
  147. John Cangialosi (September 18, 2020). Hurricane Teddy Discussion Number 24. National Hurricane Center.
  148. Richard Pasch (September 19, 2020). Hurricane Teddy Advisory Number 27. National Hurricane Center.
  149. David Zelinsky (September 19, 2020). Hurricane Teddy Discussion Number 28. National Hurricane Center.
  150. David Zelinsky (September 20, 2020). Hurricane Teddy Discussion Number 32. National Hurricane Center.
  151. Eric Blake (September 20, 2020). Hurricane Teddy Intermediate Advisory Number 32A. National Hurricane Center.
  152. Eric Blake (September 21, 2020). Hurricane Teddy Advisory Number 37. National Hurricane Center Miami Florida.
  153. Eric Blake (September 21, 2020). Hurricane Teddy Discussion Number 38. National Hurricane Center.
  154. Dave Roberts (September 22, 2020). Hurricane Teddy Discussion Number 39. National Hurricane Center.
  155. Eric Blake (September 22, 2020). Hurricane Teddy Discussion Number 41A. National Hurricane Center.
  156. Eric Blake (September 22, 2020). Hurricane Teddy Advisory Number 42. National Hurricane Center.
  157. Eric Blake (September 22, 2020). Post-Tropical Cyclone Teddy Intermediate Advisory Number 42A. National Hurricane Center.
  158. Richard Pasch (September 23, 2020). Post-Tropical Cyclone Teddy Discussion Number 44...Corrected. National Hurricane Center.
  159. Eric Blake (September 23, 2020). Post-Tropical Cyclone Teddy Intermediate Advisory Number 45. National Hurricane Center.
  160. Eric Blake (September 23, 2020). Post-Tropical Cyclone Teddy Discussion Number 46. National Hurricane Center.
  161. Template:Cite news
  162. Template:Cite news
  163. Template:Cite news
  164. Robbie Berg (September 11, 2020). Five-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook. National Hurricane Center.
  165. Pasch, Richard J. (March 6, 2020). Tropical Cyclone Report: Tropical Storm Vicky.
  166. Cape Verde – Deadly Flash Floods in Praia. (September 15, 2020).
  167. Masters, Jeff (September 15, 2020). Hurricane Sally expected to bring historic flooding to Mississippi, Alabama, Florida Panhandle. Yale Climate Connections, Yale Center for Environmental Communication.
  168. 168.0 168.1 168.2 Template:Cite report
  169. Template:Cite news
  170. Template:Cite report
  171. Robbie Berg (September 10, 2020). Five-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook. National Hurricane Center.
  172. Dan Brown (September 14, 2020). Five-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook. National Hurricane Center.
  173. Eric Blake (September 16, 2020). Five-Day Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook. National Hurricane Center.
  174. Robbie Berg (September 17, 2020). Tropical Depression Twenty-Two Special Advisory Number 1. National Hurricane Center.
  175. Jack Beven (September 18, 2020). Tropical Storm Beta Public Advisory Number 5. National Hurricane Center.
  176. Jack Beven (September 19, 2020). Tropical Storm Beta Public Advisory Number 8. National Hurricane Center.
  177. Stacy Stewart (September 20, 2020). Tropical Storm Beta Discussion Number 13. National Hurricane Center.
  178. Jack Beven (September 19, 2020). Tropical Storm Beta Public Advisory Number 9. National Hurricane Center.
  179. Jack Beven (September 19, 2020). Tropical Storm Beta Discussion Number 9. National Hurricane Center.
  180. Robbie Berg (September 22, 2020). Tropical Storm Beta Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center.
  181. Stacy R. Stewart (September 22, 2020). Tropical Depression Beta Public Advisory Number 20. National Hurricane Center.
  182. Stacy Stewart (September 22, 2020). Tropical Depression Beta Public Advisory Number 20. National Hurricane Center.
  183. Stacy Stewart (September 22, 2020). Tropical Depression Beta Public Advisory Number 21. National Hurricane Center.
  184. Gregg Gallina (September 23, 2020). Post-Tropical Cycline Beta Public Advisory Number 22. Weather Prediction Center.
  185. Fedschun, Travis (September 23, 2020). Beta floods Houston as over 500K gallons of wastewater spill, body of missing fisherman found.
  186. Robbie Berg (October 2, 2020). Tropical Depression Twenty-Five Discussion Number 1. National Hurricane Center.
  187. John Cangialosi (October 2, 2020). Tropical Storm Gamma Intermediate Advisory Number 2A. National Hurricane Center.
  188. Tropical Storm Gamma Advisory Number 5. National Hurricane Center: (October 3, 2020).
  189. Richard Pasch (October 3, 2020). Tropical Storm Gamma Tropical Cyclone Update.
  190. John Cangialosi (October 3, 2020). Tropical Storm Gamma Discussion Number 7. National Hurricane Center.
  191. Stacy Stewart. Tropical Storm Gamma Intermediate Advisory Number 7A. National Hurricane Center.
  192. Dave Roberts (October 4, 2020). Tropical Storm Gamma Advisory Number 10. National Hurricane Center.
  193. Stacy Stewart (October 5, 2020). Tropical Storm Gamma Discussion Number 12. National Hurricane Center.
  194. Dave Roberts (October 5, 2020). Tropical Depression Gamma Advisory Number 14. National Hurricane Center.
  195. David Zelinsky (October 5, 2020). Post-Tropical Cyclone Gamma Advisory Number 15. National Hurricane Center.
  196. Desalojos masivos de hoteles y alerta roja en México ante la proximidad del huracán Delta, ahora de categoría 3. Univision: (October 6, 2020).
  197. Stacy Stewart (September 30, 2020). Tropical Weather Outlook. National Hurricane Center.
  198. Dan Brown (October 4, 2020). Potential Tropical Cyclone Twenty-Six Advisory Number 1. National Hurricane Center.
  199. John Cangialosi (October 4, 2020). Tropical Depression Twenty-Six Discussion Number 2. National Hurricane Center.
  200. Dan Brown (October 5, 2020). Tropical Storm Delta Intermediate Advisory Number 3A. National Hurricane Center.
  201. Template:Cite news
  202. Template:Cite news
  203. 203.0 203.1 Dan Brown (October 6, 2020). Hurricane Delta Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center.
  204. Hurricane Delta a 'Potentially Catastrophic' Strike on Cancún, Then a U.S. Gulf Coast Danger Beginning Friday Night. The Weather Channel: (October 6, 2020).
  205. Dan Brown (October 6, 2020). Hurricane Delta Advisory Number 9. National Hurricane Center.
  206. Richard Pasch (October 6, 2020). Hurricane Delta Advisory Number 10. National Hurricane Center.
  207. Dan Brown (October 7, 2020). Hurricane Delta Tropical Cyclone Update...Corrected. National Hurricane Center.
  208. 208.0 208.1 Template:Cite news
  209. Dan Brown (October 7, 2020). Hurricane Delta Discussion Number 13. National Hurricane Center.
  210. John Cangialosi (October 8, 2020). Hurricane Delta Advisory Number 14A. National Hurricane Center.
  211. Jack Beven (October 8, 2020). Hurricane Delta Advisory Number 17. National Hurricane Center.
  212. John Cangialosi (October 9, 2020). Hurricane Delta Advisory Number 19. National Hurricane Center.
  213. Jack Beven (October 9, 2020). Hurricane Delta Discussion Number 20A. National Hurricane Center.
  214. Dan Brown (October 9, 2020). Hurricane Delta Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center.
  215. Tropical Storm Delta Intermediate Advisory Number 22A. National Hurricane Center: (October 10, 2020).
  216. Jack Beven (October 10, 2020). Tropical Depression Delta Advisory Number 24. National Hurricane Center.
  217. David Roth (October 10, 2020). Post-Tropical Cyclone Delta Advisory Number 25. Weather Prediction Center.
  218. Template:Cite news
  219. Masters, Jeff (October 8, 2020). Hurricane Delta has western Louisiana in its crosshairs. Yale Climate Connections, Yale Center for Environmental Communication.
  220. Template:Cite news
  221. Gov. Reeves declares State of Emergency for Hurricane Delta. WLOX: (October 7, 2020).
  222. Gov. Edwards Declares State of Emergency in Advance of Hurricane Delta. Office of the Governor, State of Louisiana: (October 6, 2020).
  223. Hurricane Delta Brought Significant Storm Surge, Heavy Rainfall and Strong Winds to Parts of Louisiana, Texas (RECAP). The Weather Channel: (October 12, 2020).
  224. Yucatán: Abuelito muere al asegurar su casa por paso de huracán Delta en Tizimín. Novedades Yucatan: (October 7, 2020).
  225. Mérida: Inundaciones en Fracc Las Américas provocan que mujer muera electrocutada. Novedades Yucatan: (October 8, 2020).
  226. 2 drown in rip currents in Northwest Florida over weekend. WXXV-TV: (October 12, 2020).
  227. Louisiana Department of Health verifies two Hurricane Delta-related deaths. KALB-TV: (October 11, 2020).
  228. Daniel Brown (October 19, 2020). Tropical Depression Twenty-Seven Special Advisory Number 1. National Hurricane Center.
  229. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Epsilon2020YCEC
  230. Tropical Storm Epsilon Discussion Number 6. National Hurricane Center: (October 20, 2020).
  231. Richard Pasch (October 20, 2020). Hurricane Epsilon Discussion Number 8. National Hurricane Center.
  232. Eric Blake (October 21, 2020). Hurricane Epsilon Advisory Number 12. National Hurricane Center.
  233. Richard Pasch (October 21, 2020). Hurricane Epsilon Intermediate Advisory Number 12A. National Hurricane Center.
  234. Hurricane Epsilon Discussion Number 12. National Hurricane Center: (October 21, 2020).
  235. Template:Cite news
  236. Robbie Berg (October 22, 2020). Hurricane Epsilon Discussion Number 14. National Hurricane Center Miami Florida.
  237. Hurricane Epsilon Forecast Discussion Number 15. National Hurricane Center: (October 22, 2020).
  238. 238.0 238.1 Masters, Jeff (October 23, 2020). Disturbance in the western Caribbean likely to become Tropical Storm Zeta. Yale Center for Environmental Communication, Yale School of the Environment.
  239. David Zelinsky (October 25, 2020). Hurricane Epsilon Discussion Number 26. National Hurricane Center.
  240. Andrew Latto (October 25, 2020). Tropical Storm Epsilon Advisory Number 28. National Hurricane Center.
  241. Post-Tropical Cyclone Epsilon Advisory Number 29. National Hurricane Center: (October 26, 2020).
  242. 242.0 242.1 Template:Cite news
  243. Phillips, Angie (October 29, 2020). Hurricane Epsilon sends huge waves to NI coastline. BBC News.
  244. Darragh Barry (October 24, 2020). Hurricane Epsilon Ireland: Met Eireann pinpoints when beast will cause hell in Dublin as weather warnings issued. Dublin Live.
  245. Tropical Storm Epsilon Advisory Number 6. National Hurricane Center: (October 20, 2020).
  246. Hurricane Epsilon Advisory Number 10. National Hurricane Center: (October 21, 2020).
  247. Template:Cite news
  248. Template:Cite news
  249. 249.0 249.1 Template:Cite news
  250. Richard Pasch (October 22, 2020). Hurricane Epsilon Advisory Number 17. National Hurricane Center.
  251. Eric Blake (October 24, 2020). Tropical Depression Twenty-Eight Advisory Number 1. National Hurricane Center.
  252. Stacy Stewart (October 25, 2020). Tropical Storm Zeta Intermediate Advisory Number 2A. National Hurricane Center.
  253. Pasch, Richard (October 26, 2020). Tropical Storm Zeta Discussion Number 8. National Hurricane Center.
  254. Hurricane Zeta Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center: (October 26, 2020).
  255. Hurricane Zeta Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center: (October 26, 2020).
  256. Dan Brown (October 27, 2020). Tropical Storm Zeta Advisory Number 11. National Hurricane Center.
  257. Richard Pasch (October 27, 2020). Tropical Storm Zeta Discussion Number 13. National Hurricane Center.
  258. Tropical Storm Zeta Discussion Number 14. National Hurricane Center: (October 27, 2020).
  259. Eric Blake (October 28, 2020). Hurricane Zeta Intermediate Advisory Number 14A. National Hurricane Center.
  260. Richard Pasch (October 28, 2020). Hurricane Zeta Advisory Number 17. National Hurricane Center.
  261. John Cangialosi. Tropical Storm Zeta Intermediate Advisory Number 18A. National Hurricane Center.
  262. Robbie Berg (October 29, 2020). Post-Tropical Cyclone Zeta Intermediate Advisory Number 20A...Corrected. National Hurricane Centerf.
  263. Robbie Berg (October 29, 2020). Post-Tropical Cyclone Zeta Advisory Number 21. National Hurricane Center.
  264. Jamaica Impacted by Days of Severe Weather from Tropical Storm Zeta. (October 26, 2020).
  265. Template:Cite news
  266. Template:Cite news
  267. Rice, Doyle (October 29, 2020). 6 dead, millions powerless as Zeta roars across southern, eastern US. USA Today.
  268. Template:Cite news
  269. Jack Beven (November 1, 2020). Tropical Storm Eta Discussion Number 2. National Hurricane Center.
  270. Richard Pasch (November 2, 2020). Hurricane Eta Advisory Number 7. National Hurricane Center.
  271. Hurricane Eta Advisory Number 9. National Hurricane Center: (November 2, 2020).
  272. Richard Pasch (November 3, 2020). Hurricane Eta Intermediate Advisory Number 10A. National Hurricane Center.
  273. Dan Brown (November 3, 2020). Hurricane Eta Advisory Number 13. National Hurricane Center.
  274. Hurricane Eta Advisory Number 15. National Hurricane Center.
  275. Dan Brown (November 6, 2020). Tropical Depression Eta Advisory Number 26. National Hurricane Center.
  276. Jack Beven. Tropical Storm Eta Advisory Number 28. National Hurricane Center.
  277. John Cangialosi (November 8, 2020). Tropical Storm Eta Advisory Number 32. National Hurricane Center.
  278. Tropical Storm Eta Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center: (November 8, 2020).
  279. Stacy Stewart (November 11, 2020). Hurricane Eta Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center.
  280. Stacy Stewart (November 11, 2020). Tropical Storm Eta Intermediate Advisory Number 45A. National Hurricane Center.
  281. Eric Blake (November 12, 2020). Tropical Storm Eta Tropical Cyclone Update. National Hurricane Center.
  282. Dan Brown (November 12, 2020). Tropical Storm Eta Intermediate Advisory Number 49A. National Hurricane Center.
  283. Jack Beven (November 13, 2020). Post-Tropical Cyclone Eta Discussion Number 52. National Hurricane Center.
  284. Billingsley, Frank (November 2, 2020). Eta: Not just another storm. KPRC.
  285. Hurricane Eta pounds Nicaragua as Category 4 storm. CNBC: (November 3, 2020).
  286. Global Catastrophe Recap November 2020. Aon: (December 10, 2020).
  287. Gustavo Palencia (November 5, 2020). Eta wreaks 'shocking' Central America devastation, dozens dead. Reuters.
  288. Template:Cite news
  289. Xinhua (November 5, 2020). El Salvador reports first death from tropical storm Eta. Haiti News.net.
  290. Xiomara Orellana (November 10, 2020). Ascienden a 62 las víctimas por la tormenta tropical Eta (in es-HN).
  291. Aumentan a 27 las muertes en México por el paso del ciclón Eta. La Patilla: (November 9, 2020).
  292. Woman in Guatemalan village hit by Storm Eta loses 22 members of her family. The Guardian. (November 7, 2020).
  293. Emily Shapiro, Max Golembo (November 17, 2020). Record-breaking Hurricane Iota to bring dangerous flooding to Central America. ABC News.